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Saturday, 30 November 2013

History, evolution, process, uses of all diffrent types of industrial inks, dyes, pigments, colors

Different types of industrial inks, dyes, pigments, colors comes from color family 


Color provides a significant glimpse to our world. Every day materials we tend to use different kinds of materials like - textiles, paints, plastics, paper, and foodstuffs. Colors make them most appealing. In summer there is a wild burst of colorful flowers and new leaves of various shades of green on trees.

However, in contrast autumn makes the beautiful impression with green leaves turn to brilliant shades of yellow, orange, and red. Color derives from the spectrum of light interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors.

Dye is nothing but colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is applied in an aqueous solution, and needs a mordant to boost the fastness of the dye on the textile fiber.

Pigment may be a material that modifies the color of mirrored or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food and other materials.

Both dyes and pigments appear to be colored as a result of absorption of some wavelengths of light more than others.

Ink may be a liquid or paste form contains pigments or dyes. Inks are used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, or quill.


A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. It is an ionizing and aromatic organic compound, with Chromophores as a major component. Their structures have Aryl rings that have delocalized electron systems. These structures are said to be responsible for the absorption of electromagnetic radiation that has varying wavelengths, based upon the energy of the electron clouds.

History of Dyes

Dyes usage was started in 2600 BC in china and followed by

  • 715 BC Wool dyeing established as craft in Rome
  • 55 BC Romans found painted people "picti"
  • 2ND and 3RD Centuries AD Roman graves found with madder and indigo dyed textiles
  • 1200's Rucellia, of Florence, rediscovered the ancient art of making purple dye from lichens
  • 1321 Brazilwood was first mentioned as a dye
  • 1507 France, Holland and Germany begin the cultivation of dye plants as an industry
  • 1630 Drebbel produced a new brilliant red dye from sources like cochineal and tin
  • 1774 Scheele discovered chlorine destroyed vegetable colors
  • 1774 Prussian Blue and Sulfuric acid are started available in commercial market
  • 1775 Bancroft introduced the use of quercitron bark as a natural dye
  • 1834 Runge, a German chemist developed aniline dyes
  • 1856 William Henry Perkin discovered the first synthetic dye "Mauve"
  • 1858-59 Verguin discovered Magenta (fuchsin) dye
  • 1861 Lauth discovered basic dye called Methyl violet
  • 1862 Martius and Lightfoot developed Bismarck Brown
  • 1863 Lightfoot developed Aniline Black
  • 1868 Graebe and Liebermann produced alizarin dye
  • 1872 Lauth and Baubigny developed Methyl Green
  • 1873 Groissant and Bretonniere produced Cachou de Laval sulphur dye
  • 1876 Methyl Blue discovered by Caro
  • 1877 Dobner & Fisher discovered Malachite Green discovered
  • 1878 Biebrich Scarlet invented red acid dye
  • 1878 von Baeyer synthesized synthetic indigo
  • 1880 Thomas and Holliday synthesized azo dye
  • 1884 Bottiger discovered Congo Red [cotton dye]
  • 1885 Duisberg produced Benzopurpurine direct dye
  • 1885 von Gallois and Ullrich discovered Para Red dye
  • 1901 Rene Bohn invented and patented Indanthrene Blue RS
  • 1901 Bohn Flanthrene vat dye
  • 1905 Freidlander discovered Thio-indigo Red
  • 1908 Cassella developed Hydron Blue
  • 1921 Bader developed soluble vat colors
  • 1924 Baeyer and Sunder companies produced Indigosol 0
  • 1951 Geigy introduced Irgalan dyes
  • 1956 Eastman Kodak introduced Verel
  • 1957 CIBA introduces Cibacrons reactive dyes

Dyeing process

Dyeing is the method of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, fabrics, leather, plastics, paint, printing and many others. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material.

Dyeing process of textiles

In textile dyeing process widely used chemicals like

Classification of dyes

Dyes are classified based on following factors

  • Chemical composition
  • Nature of nuclear structure
  • Various industrial uses
  • Sources of origin
  • Miscellaneous factors

Dyes which are classified based on chemical composition are

  • Acridine dyes
  • Anthraquinone dyes
  • Arylmethane dyes
  • Azo dyes
  • Cyanine dyes
  • Diazonium dyes
  • Nitro dyes
  • Nitroso dyes
  • Phthalocyanine dyes
  • Azin dyes
  • Eurhodin dyes
  • Safranin dyes
  • Xanthene dyes
  • Indophenol dyes
  • Oxazin dyes
  • Oxazone dyes
  • Thiazin dyes
  • Thiazole dyes
  • Fluorene dyes
  • Rhodamine dyes
  • Pyronin dyes

Dyes which are classified based on industrial uses are

Acid dyes - water-soluble anionic dyes applied from acidic dye baths to nylon, silk, wool, modified acrylics
Azoic dyes – contains azo group
Basic dyes – water-soluble cationic dyes
Direct dyes - water-soluble anionic dyes applied to dyeing of cotton, regenerated cellulose, paper and leather
Disperse dyes - water-insoluble nonionic dyes
Reactive dyes – used in materials like cotton, rayon, nylons
Solvent dyes – water-insoluble, soluble in alcohols, chlorinated hydrocarbons, or liquid ammonia
Sulfur dyes - water-insoluble, low cost, good fastness dyes
Vat dyes - insoluble complex polycyclic molecules
Mordant dyes – used to improve the fastness of the dye against water

Dyes which are classified based on Sources of origin are

Dyes which are classified based on miscellaneous factors

  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Oxidation Dyes
  • Fuel Dyes
  • Leather Dyes
  • Optical Brighteners
  • Leuco Dyes
  • Sublimation Dyes
  • Smoke Dyes
  • Inkjet Dyes
  • Solvent Dyes

Pigments appear the colors they are because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. The appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Pigments are water-and oil-insoluble natural and synthetic products that impart color to materials.

History of Pigments

Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years.

  • In 1200 BCE Phonecians produced Tyrian Purple
  • In 1453 CE Greeks and Romans also used pigments
  • In 1453 CE Greeks and Romans also used pigments
  • In 16the centaury Spain people used pigments
  • In 17th centaury Dutch master Johannes Vermeer used pigments for paintings
  • In 18th century Chrome Yellow, Cobalt Blue were came to usage
  • In 19th centaury Cadmium Red came into existence
  • In 20th centaury Hoechst company introduced the Hansa yellow pigment

Classification of Pigments

Biological pigments – used in biological process like Camouflage, Mimicry, Aposematism and Sexual selection.
Examples: chlorophyll; canthaxanthin; anthocyanin; rhodopsin; myoglobin
Organic pigments – Pigment Red 170; Indian Yellow; indigo; Alizarin; Alizarin Crimson
Inorganic pigments - carbon black; Cadmium Yellow; Cadmium Orange; Cadmium Red; Prussian Blue; Venetian red; Chrome Yellow; Naples Yellow; titanium white


Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. Solvents or carriers enable inks to be applied in the liquid state.

History of inks

The history of Chinese inks can be traced back to the 23rd century BC
The India ink used in ancient India since at least the 4th century BC
1,600 years ago, a popular ink recipe was created
In the 15th century, a new type of ink had to be developed in Europe

Types of Printing inks

Pad printing inks
Screen printing inks

Pad printing inks have formulations comparable to screen printing inks. Pad printing inks are formulated for rapid solvent evaporation.
Screen printing inks are designed to resist rapid evaporation so that they don't dry in the screen.

Inks can be distinguished according to the way curing takes place

  • Air-curing inks
  • Heat-curing inks
  • Two-component inks
  • UV-curing inks
  • Oxygen-curing inks
  • Sublimation inks

Air-curing inks - is designed not to be heat set and cure at normal air temperature after printing.

Heat-curing inks require elevated temperatures for curing. The use of these ink systems is limited by the high curing temperature that the plastic must be able to withstand.

Two-component inks have the big advantage that no volatile components evaporate during curing. Pot-life after mixing is however limited.

UV-curing inks are widely used for screen-printing. The curing process is fast and environmental problems are smaller than for solvent-based systems. Small changes in ambient conditions have little influence, which makes the printing process very stable.

UV-curing inks are widely used for screen-printing. The curing process is fast and environmental problems are smaller than for solvent-based systems. Small changes in ambient conditions have little influence, which makes the printing process very stable.

Sublimation inks are heated to a temperature of about 200ºC (392ºF) during the application process, so that dyes in the ink sublime and are absorbed by the polymer surface while they are in the gas state. Sublimation inks are in the solid state at ambient temperature, like a wax, and become fluid when raised to 80ºC (176ºF) in the ink reservoir

Monday, 25 November 2013

Autobiography of Frederick Sanger – Double Nobel prize winner

Biography & contributions

Frederick Sanger was born on August 13, 1918 [Died on November 19, 2013]
Sanger was British chemist and double Noble prize receiver

Awards list

1950, Fellow of the Royal Society
1951, Corday–Morgan Medal
1958, Nobel Prize in chemistry
1969, Royal Medal
1971, Gairdner Foundation International Award
1976, William Bate Hardy Prize
1977, Copley Medal
1978, G.W. Wheland Award
1979, Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
1979, Albert Lasker Award
1980, Nobel Prize in chemistry
1994, Association of Bimolecular Resource Facilities Award

Complete Video on Frederick Sanger life and works done in chemistry

He extensively worked on proteins like Insulin.
Sanger determined base sequences in nucleic acid

Nucleic acid bases include

                Pyrimidines  – AdenineGuanine
                Purines  – CytosineThymineUracil

He also worked on ‘recombinant DNA’
In 1967 sanger’s team determined sequence of 5S ribosomal RNA

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA or rDNA is a class of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences.

Peter Lobban was the first person introduce the recombinant DNA technology

Recombinant DNA technology was made possible by the discovery, isolation and application of restriction endonucleases.

In 1964 Sanger discovered other class of RNA I.e., tRNA

In 1977 He proposed Sangers method of dideoxy chain-termination method for sequencing DNA molecules

He sequenced insulin protein

Insulin is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood.
In the year of 1951 & 1952 Sanger determine the complete amino acid sequence of the two polypeptide chains of bovine insulin A and B.


Sanger proved that proteins have a outlined chemical composition. For this method he used Sanger reagent or 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [FDNB ] to react with the exposed N-terminal amino group at one end of the polypeptide chain. He then partially hydrolyzed the insulin into short peptides, either with hydrochloric acid or using an enzyme such as trypsin.

The mixture of peptides was fractionated in two dimensions on a sheet of filter paper, first by electrophoresis in one dimension and then, perpendicular to that, by chromatography in the other. The different peptide fragments of insulin, detected with ninhydrin, moved to different positions on the paper, creating a distinct pattern called fingerprints.

The peptide from the N-terminus could be recognized by the yellow colour imparted by the FDNB label and the identity of the labelled amino acid at the end of the peptide determined by complete acid hydrolysis and discovering which dinitrophenyl-amino acid was there. By repeating this type of procedure Sanger was able to determine the sequences of the many peptides generated using different methods for the initial partial hydrolysis.+

History, applications of hormones, cosmetics & personal care, pharmaceuticals & medicinal products

Types of hormones, cosmetics & personal care products,  pharmaceuticals chemicals

Biochemicals, chemical messengers, mood swingers, plant growth regulators what ever may be the names for hormones plays vital role in humans, animals and even in plants. Hormones produced in one part of body/place and travel through bloodstream to different parts of the body.

Hormones basically involved in

  • Growth – in humans, animals and plants
  • Digestion process – in humans, animals
  • Metabolism – in humans, animals
  • Mood changes – in humans
  • Sexual development – in humans, animals
  • Reproduction process – in humans, animals, plants

By this functions hormones are divided into following two groups

Hormones also classified based on their origin. These are

  • Peptide hormones
  • Lipids derived hormones
  • Phospholipids derived hormones
  • Any sort of imbalances in hormone levels can causes
  • Anxiety
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Depression
  • Poor concentration
  • Nervousness
  • Skin Problems etc
  • Plant hormones

Plant hormones also has important functions

  • Auxins – helps in vegetative propagation
  • Cytokinins – for cell division, root proliferation
  • Gibberellins – for flowering, seed dormancy
  • Abscisic Acid – for abscission of flowers, leaves, fruits
  • Ethylene – for fruit ripening
  • Polyamines – to promote plant regeneration

Human hormones

In various human development stages hormonal secretion levels will change. At the age of 10 to 11 years in humans, hormones related to puberty leads to change in mental and physical growth.

Still in teenagers hormones causes

  • Self-consciousness
  • Quick mood changes
  • Quick decision changes
  • Attraction towards opposite genders

At the age of teenage people will fall in love, reason behind this is all because of high levels of hormones. There are certain stages of love

  • Lust
  • Attraction towards opposite gender
  • Commitment

All these emotions are because of love chemicals. These love chemicals include

Adrenaline – causes excitement, attraction,anxiety
Estrogen – sex drive factor in both male and females
Testosterone - sex drive factor in both male and females
Dopamine – it’s a pleasure chemical
Norepinephrine – raises excitement in heart
Serotonin – released attraction stage of love
Oxytocin – for long term relationships between couples
Vasopressin – vital role in long-term commitment
Endorphins – causes feelings like attachment, comfort, anxiety, relieve stress, relieve pain

Cosmetics and personal care products

Human’s skin is the largest organ in their body and when you apply cosmetics, personal care products, perfumes, fragrances it will absorb soon and show immediate results.

So most of the teenage people both genders shows interest in body cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, altering the appearance. These type of products termed as cosmetics and personal care products.

Cosmetic and personal care products are applied to appear more attraction and look different from others.

Cosmetic products used in the form of powders, solutions, gels, suspensions, pastes, lotions. These products can be used starting from head to toe of human body.

Chemicals involved in the preparation of cosmetics and personal care include

Cosmetic manufacturers before releasing their products into market they will be testing for safety and efficacy on animals like mice, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits. Some cosmetic manufacturers remove controversial and hazardous chemicals from their cosmetic products.

Along with the cosmetic products people widely use perfumes, fragrances to their body, cloths.

All civilizations, from ancient to contemporary world, have used fragrances for a wide spread of functions. Before the appearance of organic synthesis, fragrances were restricted to those found in the form of oils, balsams, exudates, and resins. With development of organic synthesis during the 19th Century, fragrance chemistry advanced into industrial synthesis and distribution.

Usage of fragrances was started by Egyptians, Greeks, Rome people and it continues in 20th centaury. The ancient people prepared cosmetics and personal care products from herbs, plant sources.

A fragrance was also used for tombs to preserve human body, antidotes for toxins, health improver agents.

Some perfumes according to their chemical composition and origin from where they derived or extracted stays on body and even they will exerts perfumery action with immediate or slow response.

Fragrance chemistry is an ever dynamic field that relies on the trends of the age. Recent trends in fragrance chemistry include floral scents, fruity scents, spicy scents, rose flower scents. Fragrance chemistry is an industrially important science that needs the constant discovery of new and distinctive odorants.

Fragrances are classified into following type based on origin

Most of the synthetic fragrances are made of

  • Terpenoids – GeraniolLinalool, Citronellol, Citronellal, Citral
  • Hemiterpenoids – Prenyl acetate, Benzoate
  • Cyclic Monoterpenes - l-menthol, l-carvone, α-terpineol
  • Menthol
  • Bicyclic Monoterpenoids – Camphene
  • Sesquiterpenoids – Geranylacetone, Bisabolol
  • Diterpenoids
  • Ambergris
  • Benzoin
  • Calone
  • Castoreum
  • Hedione
  • Indole

At teenage level due to peek hormonal levels some people will addicted to drugs. This is termed as drug addiction or substance addiction.

Neurochemicals or neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin are the real culprit behind drug addiction. Dopamine motivates us to do what’s necessary to fulfill our desires, and once a desire has been met, the nucleus accumbens triggers the release of serotonin. Serotonin, which helps us feel satiated and contributes to feelings of happiness and well-being, then inhibits the compelling motivation of dopamine.

Once people habituated to taking drugs, there is a possibility of decline of their health. To treat their health pharmaceuticals or drugs or medicines or chemotherapeutic agents required.

So pharmaceuticals or drugs can be defined as ‘chemicals substances that are used in medical diagnosis, curing, treatment, prevention in humans, animals, and plants’.

Pharmaceutical manufacturers produce drugs/medicines and released into the market. Before releasing the drugs into market pharmaceutical manufacturers will conduct following tests/studies on animals, healthy volunteers. Basically in theses studies scientists check for the safety, efficacy, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs.

  • Pre-clinical studies
  • Phase I
  • Phase II
  • Phase III
  • Post market Surveillance

Drugs used for chemotherapy or pharmacotherapy are divided based on the purpose of use

  • Veterinary drugs
  • Musculoskeletal drugs
  • Hormonal drugs
  • Antidotes
  • Antiparasitic drugs
  • Antibiotics
  • Antineoplastic drugs
  • Dermatological drugs
  • Gastrointestinal drugs
  • Cardiovascular drugs
  • Proton pump inhibitor drugs
  • Pharmaceutical raw materials
  • Pharmaceutical intermediates

Veterinary medicine given to both domestic animals, wild animals for the purpose of prevention and treatment of diseases. Veterinary medicine given to animals through via feed, water, nervous system.

Musculoskeletal drugs

Musculoskeletal drugs diagnose acute, sub-acute and chronic non-surgical musculoskeletal complaints like pain in the muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints.

Hormone drugs are hormone replacements for patients with thyroid problems and other hormonal imbalance problems. Hormonal medicine also used for regulation of ovulation and menstruation.

Antidote are pharmaceuticals neutralizes counteracts with harmful effects of poison. Antihistamines used for seasonal allergic itching, hay fever, reduces nausea, vomiting, anaphylaxis.

Antiparasitic drugs

Antiparasitic drugs are pharmaceuticals diseases caused by nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, protozoa, and amoeba. Antiparasitic drugs are highly effective, safe, cost effective drugs.

Antibiotics works selectively by killing particular type of bacteria without harming living cells. Antibiotics interfere with the formation of the bacterium’s cell wall or its cell contents there by it kill or prevent the growth of bacteria.

Anticancer drugs also termed as antineoplastic agents. Anticancer drugs effective for hormone-sensitive tumors, malignancies, cancerous cells growth. Anticancer drugs acts at specific points of the anaphase or metaphase of cell cycle.

Dermatological drugs

Dermatological drugs exert chemical physical action on the skin in order to assist in treatment of skin diseases. Dermatological drugs composed with other medicines like local anesthetics, cleansing agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-infective agents, emollients, and astringents, agents to treat acne, anti-virals, and anti-fungal.

Gastrointestinal drugs are pharmaceuticals neutralize the acid secretions of stomach, regulates gastrointestinal motility, improve digestion and stimulate the production of bile by the liver. Naproxen, ranitidine, clebopride, betazole, impromidine are widely used gastrointestinal agents.

Cardiovascular drugs are pharmaceuticals cures cardiovascular diseases heart attack, stroke, hypertension, congestive heart failure and vascular death. Digoxin, bisoprolol, lidocaine, midodrine are widely used cardiovascular drugs.

Proton pump inhibitors are pharmaceuticals works against acid refluxes in stomach walls, peptic ulcers, and stomach ulcers. Nexium, Prilosec, Protonix, Prevacid, AcipHex, Kapidex is the commonly used proton pump inhibitors drug brands.

Pharmaceutical raw materials are two type’s active ingredients and inactive ingredients. Pharmaceutical raw materials are needed to make medicines and drugs. Inactive ingredients are ineffective pharma raw materials used to create pills.

Pharmaceutical intermediates are fine chemical products and important principle ingredients in manufacturing of synthetic medicines.

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